Scanning probe microscopy techniques, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy, are harnessed to image nanoscale structures with an exquisite resolution, which has been of significant value in a variety of areas of nanotechnology. These scanning probe techniques, however, are not generally suitable for high-throughput imaging, which has, from the outset, been a primary challenge. Traditional approaches to increasing the scalability have involved developing multiple probes for imaging, but complex probe design and electronics are required to carry out the detection method. Here, we report a probe-based imaging method that utilizes scalable cantilever-free elastomeric probe design and hierarchical measurement architecture, which readily reconstructs high-resolution and high-throughput topography images. In a single scan, we demonstrate imaging with a 100-tip array to obtain 100 images over a 1-mm2 area with 106 pixels in less than 10 min. The potential for large-scale tip integration and the advantage of a simple probe array suggest substantial promise for our approach to high-throughput imaging far beyond what is currently possible.