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Sumin Kim†, Young-Geun Park†, Ju-Young Kim†, Enji Kim, Dong Ha Lee, Jae-Hyun Lee*, Jinwoo Cheon*, and Jang-Ung Park* († equally contributed)
Magnetic Manipulation of Locomotive Liquid Electrodes for Wireless Active Cardiac Monitoring
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 15 (24), 28954–28963
Date: Jun 7, 2023

For electrocardiogram (ECG) detection, the position of conventional patch-type electrodes based on solid-state metals are difficult to manipulate after attachment and also can lead to poor interface with stretchable, rough skin surfaces. Herein, we present a liquid form of ECG electrodes that can be magnetically reconfigured on human skin by providing its conformal interfacing. These electrodes consist of biocompatible liquid-metal droplets where magnetic particles are homogeneously dispersed, and their conformal contact with skin can yield significantly low impedance as well as high signal-to-noise ratio of ECG peaks. These electrodes are also capable of complex motions such as linear movements, splitting, and merging under external magnetic fields. Furthermore, magnetic manipulation of each electrode position on human skin enables precise monitoring of ECG signals with the change in ECG vectors. The integration of liquid-state electrodes with electronic circuitry demonstrates wireless and continuous ECG monitoring while magnetically moving this entire system on human skin.

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